O Que É Abolitio Criminis? (com exemplos)


QUESTÃO CERTA: O instituto da abolitio criminis refere-se à supressão da conduta criminosa nos aspectos formal e material, enquanto o princípio da continuidade normativo-típica refere-se apenas à supressão formal.

Exatamente! Se o legislador revogar o tipo penal (supressão formal), mas a conduta continuar sendo crime através da previsão de outro tipo penal, ocorrerá a chamada continuidade normativo-típica. Já, se a supressão for no aspecto formal (revoga-se o artigo) e material (e a conduta não se mantem criminalizada em outro tipo penal), estaremos diante da abolitio criminis!

QUESTÃO CERTA: Em cada item a seguir, é apresentada uma situação hipotética, seguida de uma assertiva a ser julgada com base na legislação de regência e na jurisprudência dos tribunais superiores a respeito de execução penal, lei penal no tempo, concurso de crimes, crime impossível e arrependimento posterior. Manoel praticou conduta tipificada como crime. Com a entrada em vigor de nova lei, esse tipo penal foi formalmente revogado, mas a conduta de Manoel foi inserida em outro tipo penal. Nessa situação, Manoel responderá pelo crime praticado, pois não ocorreu a abolitio criminis com a edição da nova lei.

CONTINUIDADE NORMATIVO-TÍPICA: Supressão formal do tipo penal, o fato permanece punível, a conduta criminosa apenas migra para outro tipo penal. A intenção do legislador é manter o caráter criminoso do fato, mas com outra roupagem.

ABOLICIO CRIMINIS: Supressão do crime (formal e material), a conduta não será mais punida (o fato se torna atípico). A intenção do legislador é não mais considerar o fato criminoso.

A abolitio criminis ocorre quando uma lei penal incriminadora vem a ser revogada por outra, que prevê que o fato deixa de ser considerado crime. Nesse caso, como a lei posterior deixa de considerar o fato como crime, ela produzirá efeitos retroativos, alcançando, inclusive, os fatos praticados antes de sua vigência (art. 5, XL da CF e art. 2° CP). Ademais, cumpre salientar que a abolitio criminis faz cessar a pena e os efeitos penais da condenação.

Cuidado para não confundir abolitio criminis com continuidade típico-normativa. Na continuidade tipico-normativa, embora a lei nova revogue um determinado artigo que previa um tipo penal, ela simultaneamente insere esse fato dentro de outro tipo penal. Nesse caso não há a abolição do crime, pois a conduta continua sendo considerada crime, mas por outro tipo penal.

QUESTÃO ERRADA: A anistia ou abolitio criminis é causa extintiva de punibilidade discutida no âmbito do Poder Legislativo.

ERRADA – Anistia é discutida no Poder Legislativo. Abolitio Criminis pode ser discutida no Poder Legislativo ou no Executivo. Exemplo – Portaria da ANVISA que retirou o cloreto de etila do rol de substâncias ilícitas através de uma portaria. Nesse caso ocorreu abolito criminis sobre o famoso lança perfume.

QUESTÃO ERRADA: A revogação de um tipo penal pela superveniência de lei descriminalizadora alcança também os efeitos extrapenais de sentença condenatória penal.

Abolitio Criminis não alcança os efeitos civis.

A multa também é um efeito penal da sentença condenatória, portanto, ocorrendo abolitio criminis, o agente ficará desobrigado ao pagamento da multa também.

Extrapenais = civis, administrativos.

CEBRASPE (2023):

QUESTÃO CERTA: A sucessão de leis penais no tempo pode gerar: abolitio criminis.

A apuração do conflito ou sucessão de leis penais no tempo se dará através da análise das espécies de extratividade da lei penal: 

  • Abolitio Criminis;
  • Novatio Legis Incriminadora (Lei Nova Incriminadora);
  • Novatio Legis in Pejus (Lex Gravior – Lei Nova mais Severa);
  • Novatio legis in Mellius (Lex Mitior – Lei Nova mais Benéfica).


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