Consumo intermediário

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1834

QUESTÃO CERTA: Considere os seguintes dados, extraídos de um sistema de contas nacionais – conta de bens e serviços – que segue a metodologia adotada atualmente no Brasil (em unidades monetárias):

Produção total: 1.323 (valor bruto da produção)

Importação de bens e serviços: 69

Impostos sobre produtos: 84

Consumo final: 630

Formação bruta de capital fixo: 150

Variação de estoques: 12

Exportações de bens e serviços: 56

Com base nessas informações, o consumo intermediário dessa economia foi: 628.

A questão nos forneceu os dados para se chegar primeiro ao PIBpm, que faz parte da equação para se chegar ao Consumo Intermediário (CI). Portanto primeiro vamos ao PIB:

PIB à ótica da despesa = C+I+G+X – M
PIB à ótica da despesa = 630+150+12+56-69
PIB à ótica da despesa = 779

Agora usamos o PIB à ótica da produção na fórmula que contém o Consumo Intermediário (CI):

PIB à ótica da produção = Produção Total – Consumo Intermediário + Impostos – Subsídios
779 = 1323 – CI +84 – 0
CI = 628

Quando o PIB é mensurado a preços de mercado, inclui o valor dos bens com o preço que o consumidor paga por eles. Então: PIBpm

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 = PIBcf + Impostos Indiretos. O PIB a custo de fatores e o que a empresa gastou com os meios de produção (matéria-prima, salários, aluguéis) para que os bens fossem produzidos.

Pode-se distinguir o PIB a preços de mercado (PIBpm) e o PIB a custos de factores (PIBcf). A distinção entre estes é que o PIBpm inclui o valor dos impostos indiretos e subsídios enquanto que o PIBcf não os inclui.

Dispêndio ou Despesa: são os gastos que os agentes econômicos realizam para adquirir (comprar) a produção, ou seja, é o destino da produção.

A despesa é a alocação do produto. A Despesa é dada pela soma do Consumo das famílias (C), do Investimento das empresas (I), dos Gastos do Governo (G) e das Exportações líquidas (X-M).

Dispêndio = C+I+ G+X-M

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