Quais São os Princípios do Planejamento Estratégico?

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Os princípios do planejamento estratégico não são muito conhecidos, mas existem, caros (as) leitores (as). Assim, é importante lermos a respeito deles e tentarmos lembrar quais são e o que significam – mesmo que seja difícil memorizar tanta informação.

Oliveira (2001) define quais são esses princípios (divididos em princípios gerais e princípios específicos):

>> PRINCÍPIOS GERAIS

CONTRIBUIÇÃO AOS OBJETIVOS
O planejamento deve sempre visar aos objetivos máximos da empresa. No processo de planejamento deve-se hierarquizar os objetivos estabelecidos e procurar alcançá-los em sua totalidade, tendo em vista a interligação entre eles.

PRECEDÊNCIA
Corresponde a uma função administrativa que vem antes das outras (organização, direção e controle). Na realidade é difícil separar e seqüenciar as funções administrativas, mas pode-se considerar que, de maneira geral, o planejamento “do que é como vai ser feito” aparece na ponta do processo. Como conseqüência, o planejamento assume uma situação de maior importância no processo administrativo.

MAIOR PENETRAÇÃO E ABRANGÊNCIA
O planejamento pode provocar uma série de modificações nas características e atividades da empresa. As modificações provocadas nas pessoas podem corresponder à necessidade de treinamento, substituição, transferências, funções, avaliação, etc.; na tecnologia pode ser apresentada pela evolução dos conhecimentos, pelas novas maneiras de fazer os trabalhos, etc.; e nos sistemas podem ocorrer alterações nas responsabilidades estabelecidas nos níveis de autoridade, descentralização, comunicações, procedimentos, instituições, etc.

MAIOR EFICIÊNCIA, EFICÁCIA E EFETIVIDADE
O planejamento deve procurar maximizar os resultados e minimizar as deficiências. Através desses aspectos, o planejamento procura proporcionar a empresa uma situação de eficiência, eficácia e efetividade.

>>> PRINCÍPIOS ESPECÍFICOS

PARTICIPATIVO
O principal benefício do planejamento não é o seu produto, ou seja, o plano, mas o processo envolvido. Nesse sentido, o papel do responsável do planejamento não é simplesmente elaborá-lo, mas facilitar o processo de sua elaboração pela própria empresa e deve ser realizado pelas áreas pertinentes ao processo.

COORDENADO
Todos os aspectos envolvidos devem ser projetados de forma que atuem interdependentemente, ou seja, nenhuma parte ou aspectos de uma empresa pode ser planejado eficientemente se o for de maneira independente de qualquer outra parte ou aspecto.

INTEGRADO
Os vários escalões de uma empresa devem ter seus planejamentos integrados. Nas empresas voltadas para ambiente, nas quais os objetivos empresariais dominam os dos seus membros, geralmente os objetivos são escolhidos de “cima para baixo” e os meios para atingi-los “de baixo para cima”, sendo este fluxo usualmente invertido em uma empresa cuja função primária é servir aos seus membros.

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PERMANENTE
Leva em consideração a turbulência do ambiente. Essa condição é exigida pela própria turbulência do ambiente, pois nenhum plano mantém seu valor com o tempo.

Vamos começar com uma questão da CEBRASPE (2011):

QUESTÃO CERTA: O planejamento deve sempre visar aos objetivos máximos da empresa.

Essa assertiva está em total consonância com o que acabamos de ver.

Outra questão da CEBRASPE, porém de 2007:

QUESTÃO CERTA: Segundo o princípio da contribuição aos objetivos, o planejamento deve, sempre, visar aos objetivos máximos da organização.

QUESTÃO CERTA: Acerca dos princípios gerais e específicos do planejamento estratégico, assinale a opção correta: Os objetivos estabelecidos pela organização devem ser, de acordo com o princípio da contribuição aos objetivos, hierarquizados e alcançados em sua totalidade.

QUESTÃO CERTA: Assinale a alternativa que descreve um dos princípios específicos que o planejamento necessita respeitar para que os resultados obtidos pela sua implementação sejam aqueles previamente determinados: O princípio da integração (ou planejamento integrado), que visa manter a coesão entre os diferentes níveis da organização.

QUESTÃO CERTA: São considerados princípios do planejamento relacionados ao alcance dos resultados de uma organização: contribuição aos objetivos, precedência, maior penetração e abrangência, maior eficiência, eficácia e efetividade.

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