O Que É o Crime de Extorsão? (com exemplos)




        Art. 158 – Constranger alguém, mediante violência ou grave ameaça, e com o intuito de obter para si ou para outrem indevida vantagem econômica, a fazer, tolerar que se faça ou deixar de fazer alguma coisa:

        Pena – reclusão, de quatro a dez anos, e multa.

        § 1º – Se o crime é cometido por duas ou mais pessoas, ou com emprego de arma, aumenta-se a pena de um terço até metade.

        § 2º – Aplica-se à extorsão praticada mediante violência o disposto no § 3º do artigo anterior.                     

§ 3o  Se o crime é cometido mediante a restrição da liberdade da vítima, e essa condição é necessária para a obtenção da vantagem econômica, a pena é de reclusão, de 6 (seis) a 12 (doze) anos, além da multa; se resulta lesão corporal grave ou morte, aplicam-se as penas previstas no art. 159, §§ 2o e 3o, respectivamente.                  

        Extorsão mediante sequestro

        Art. 159 – Sequestrar pessoa com o fim de obter, para si ou para outrem, qualquer vantagem, como condição ou preço do resgate:                 

        Pena – reclusão, de oito a quinze anos.                

        § 1o Se o sequestro dura mais de 24 (vinte e quatro) horas, se o sequestrado é menor de 18 (dezoito) ou maior de 60 (sessenta) anos, ou se o crime é cometido por bando ou quadrilha.                

        Pena – reclusão, de doze a vinte anos.              

        § 2º – Se do fato resulta lesão corporal de natureza grave:               

        Pena – reclusão, de dezesseis a vinte e quatro anos.                

        § 3º – Se resulta a morte:                

        Pena – reclusão, de vinte e quatro a trinta anos.                 

        § 4º – Se o crime é cometido em concurso, o concorrente que o denunciar à autoridade, facilitando a libertação do sequestrado, terá sua pena reduzida de um a dois terços.                   

       Extorsão indireta

        Art. 160 – Exigir ou receber, como garantia de dívida, abusando da situação de alguém, documento que pode dar causa a procedimento criminal contra a vítima ou contra terceiro:

        Pena – reclusão, de um a três anos, e multa.

No delito de roubo, a vítima não precisa fazer nada, pois tanto faz se o agente pega o bem ou se a vítima o entrega. Há o crime do mesmo jeito. 

Na extorsão, a vítima deve praticar um comportamento (fazer, tolerar ou deixar de fazer algo).

CEBRASPE (2017):

QUESTÃO ERRADA: A extorsão é crime material, e a sua consumação exige a concretização da vantagem econômica exigida pelo agente.

> A extorsão é um crime formal, ou seja, de consumação ANTECIPADA. Não precisa que o agente obtenha a vantagem para se configurar o crime. 

CEBRASPE (2015):

QUESTÃO CERTA: Cometerá o crime de extorsão o servidor público que, em razão do cargo e mediante grave ameaça, exigir para si vantagem econômica.

–Exigir (sem violência): Concussão

–Exigir (mediante violência): Extorsão

CEBRASPE (2022):

QUESTÃO ERRADA:  Valdo está sendo investigado pelo crime de extorsão, em liberdade. Há indícios de que agiu com um comparsa. Nessa situação hipotética, em tese: para a instauração do inquérito policial, é necessária representação da vítima de extorsão.

O crime de extorsão, art. 158 do CP, é crime de ação pública incondicionada, dispensando representação do ofendido, e não se aplicando a este, por expressa previsão do art. 183, a excepcionalidade de representação prevista no art. 182.


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